Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Vermont Legal Research for Non-lawyers

Step 3

Write down citations mentioned in the discussions.

Citations appear in the main text of a document, and in footnotes. You might find citations to the following types of documents:

  • Cases - usually have two parties (occasionally more) and the citation typically contains a volume number, abbreviated reporter title (name of publication), and page number that the case begins on within that volume. For example:

State of Vermont v. Hatcher, 167 Vt. 338 (1997)

Dougan v. Nunes, 645 F.Supp.2d 319 (2009)

  • Statues, also known as laws. Statues may be cited by topic (title number), abbreviated code book title, and section number. For example:

Vt.Stat. Ann. Vermont Recreational Trails Fund. 10, § 446 (1993)

27 U.S.C.A. § 124.(2002) Direct shipment of wine.

  • Regulations, also known as Rules, and other agency documents. Regulations are typically cited by (title number), abbreviated publication title, and section number, similar to statutes.

Vt. Code R. 16-6-1.1 (may also be written as VT ADC 12 020 012)

  • Pre-enactment documents, also known as legislative history. This includes documents that a legislature uses or generates in the course of their work, including proposed bills, committee reports and minutes, transcriptions of public hearings, and other material. Depending on the document these may be cited in a variety of ways.

An act relating to audits of a school district's financial statements, VT H.155, 2015 - 2016 Session, Journal p. 133 (2015).

Orphan Works Act of 2008, H.R. 5889, 110th Cong. § 2 (2008).

  • City or town ordinances, cited by municipality, and then as arranged by topic, article, and/or section number within the publication.

Barre, Vt, Code art. II § 6-21. Permit for working in town highway rights-of-way.

  • Constitutions, cited by the governing body, article or amendment number, and section.

U.S. Const. amend. XIII, § 2

V.T. Const. ch. 1, art. 11

V.T. Const. ch. 2 § 6

Tip: Make a note of whether the citations are state or federal and if they are civil or criminal issues.